Question: What do each of the symbols represent within the four quadrants on the reverse shield of the 1773 Virginia halfpenny. I read that it was the coat of arms of Virginia, but I don’t know what each individual symbol represents. I think the one in the lower left is Hibernia for Ireland and the upper right might represent France, but I can’t even guess on the other two. Can you clarify? –B.W.
Answer:The reverse arms are actually that of George III, who had jurisdiction over Virginia in 1773. At the upper right, the designation is that of France. The upper left represents Scotland; the lower right is Hannover (a German princely state and seat of the Hannoverian dynasty); and the lower left is, indeed, Ireland.